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    AuthorTitleYearJournal/ProceedingsReftypeDOI/URL
    Achten, W., Verchot, L., Franken, Y., Mathijs, E., V.P. Singh, R.A. & Muys, B. Jatropha bio-diesel production and use 2008 Biomass and Bioenergy
    Vol. 32(12), pp. 1063-1084 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The interest in using Jatropha curcas L. (JCL) as a feedstock for the production of bio-diesel is rapidly growing. The properties of the crop and its oil have persuaded investors, policy makers and clean development mechanism (CDM) project developers to consider JCL as a substitute for fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, JCL is still a wild plant of which basic agronomic properties are not thoroughly understood and the environmental effects have not been investigated yet. Gray literature reports are very optimistic on simultaneous wasteland reclamation capability and oil yields, further fueling the Jatropha bio-diesel hype. In this paper, we give an overview of the currently available information on the different process steps of the production process of bio-diesel from JCL, being cultivation and production of seeds, extraction of the oil, conversion to and the use of the bio-diesel and the by-products. Based on this collection of data and information the best available practice, the shortcomings and the potential environmental risks and benefits are discussed for each production step. The review concludes with a call for general precaution and for science to be applied.
    BibTeX:
    @article{W.M.J.Achten2008,
      author = {W.M.J. Achten and L. Verchot and Y.J. Franken and E. Mathijs and V.P. Singh, R. Aerts and B. Muys},
      title = {Jatropha bio-diesel production and use},
      journal = {Biomass and Bioenergy},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {32},
      number = {12},
      pages = {1063-1084},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2008.03.003}
    }
    
    ADPP Clubes de Agricultures de ADPP em Mocambique 2010 , pp. 37  presentation URL 
    BibTeX:
    @presentation{ADPP2010,
      author = {ADPP},
      title = {Clubes de Agricultures de ADPP em Mocambique},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {37},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/workshops/seminar-maputo-2010/Presentation_ADPPCaboDelgado.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    ADPP Jatropha counts 2008-2009-2010 2010   misc URL 
    BibTeX:
    @misc{ADPP2010a,
      author = {ADPP},
      title = {Jatropha counts 2008-2009-2010},
      year = {2010},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/documents-1/misc/Jatrophacounts2008-2010.docx?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    ADPP Relatório da Visita do Ministério de Energia Novas e Renovaveis 2009   misc URL 
    BibTeX:
    @misc{ADPP2009a,
      author = {ADPP},
      title = {Relatório da Visita do Ministério de Energia Novas e Renovaveis},
      year = {2009},
      note = {Portuguese},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/documents-1/misc/Relat%C3%83%C2%B3riodaVisitadoMinist%C3%83%C2%A9riodeEnergiaNovaseRenovaveis.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    ADPP Household Survey data 2007   misc URL 
    BibTeX:
    @misc{ADPP2007,
      author = {ADPP},
      title = {Household Survey data},
      year = {2007},
      note = {Portuguese},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/documents-1/market-household-surveys/HHoldSurvey_data_fact.xls?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Adriaans, T. Duurtesten met minimaal omgebouwde DI motoren op PPO 2008 , pp. 2  techreport URL 
    Abstract: De conclusie lijkt gerechtvaardigd dat er in de toegankelijke literatuur geen duurtesten met PPO worden
    beschreven aan kleine DI motoren. Op basis van de input van Arrakis over de motoren (DI, 20 kW,
    watergekoeld) en het gebruik (voortdurend (wisselend) belast, tweetanksysteem voorgenomen) wordt het
    gebruik van PPO niet dringend ontraden. De volgende aanbevelingen voor ombouw worden gedaan:

    • Goede conditie van de motor verzekeren (verstuivers, compressie)

    • De motor uitzetten of terugschakelen naar diesel bij langdurig onbelast draaien

    • De brandstof voorverwarmen middels koelwater. Eventueel isolatie of aanvullend elektrische verwarming van de verstuiverleiding. Hoe heter de brandstof aan de verstuiver, hoe beter.

    • Regelmatig controleren op koolafzetting en indien nodig ontkolen van verstuivers en cilinderkop. Dit kan bijv. gelijktijdig met vernieuwen van de smeerolie gebeuren (bijv. 300 uur).

    • Vervroegen van de timing is bij goede belasting niet noodzakelijk. Eventueel kan aan een verhoging van de openingsdruk van de verstuiver worden gedacht als de verbranding onvoldoende is.

    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Adriaans2008,
      author = {Thijs Adriaans},
      title = {Duurtesten met minimaal omgebouwde DI motoren op PPO},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {2},
      note = {Dutch},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/technical-research-annexes/background/Samenvattendenotitie%280856812-M01%29.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Adriaans, T. & de Jongh, J. Experiences with Jatropha oil conversion technologies, Mali, Mozambique, Honduras and Tanzania 2008 , pp. 12  techreport URL 
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Thijs&Jongh2008c,
      author = {Thijs Adriaans and Jan de Jongh},
      title = {Experiences with Jatropha oil conversion technologies, Mali, Mozambique, Honduras and Tanzania},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {12},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/technical-research-annexes/technical-research-activities/development-of-a-modification-kit/FACT-Publ_ExperiencesConversionTechnologies.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Afonso, B. ADPP Clubes de Produtores Agricola, Cabo Delgado 2008 , pp. 15Presentation  presentation URL 
    BibTeX:
    @presentation{Afonso2008,
      author = {Bachir Afonso},
      title = {ADPP Clubes de Produtores Agricola, Cabo Delgado},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {15},
      note = {Portuguese},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/workshops/2008-nov-7-8/2008-11-07_Bachir_Farmer_Clubs.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Ansø, N. Short note regarding Pure Plant Oil, PPO, as engine fuel 2007 , pp. 3  techreport URL 
    Abstract: It is common knowledge that basically all diesel engines will run on PPO for a short while even without conversion, but that is far from optimised and no solution. Then you can compensate for cold start problems with a 2-tank system, and compensate for the higher viscosity by heated fuel system and larger fuel pipes, but this is not all that you will need for a real optimised solution where the original engine is optimised for the specific fuel - PPO. What I call a real conversion also includes injectors, injection parameters, glow plugs, and a lot of simple and practical considerations regarding the fuel supply.

    To obtain good emissions results, it is essential to have a real conversion, including optimisation of the engine performance, and to have a good quality fuel which meets the limits specified in fuel standards developed for that specific fuel.

    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Ansoe2007,
      author = {Niels Ansø},
      title = {Short note regarding Pure Plant Oil, PPO, as engine fuel},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {3},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/technical-research-annexes/background/ShortnoteregardingPPOasenginefuel.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Assamo, S.P. Organic Pest Control in Jatropha (in press?) 2011(?) School: Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Faculdade de Agronomia e Engenharia Florestal  mastersthesis URL 
    Abstract: Three bio-pesticide extracts of Tephrosia (Tephrosia spp.), Tobacco (Nicotiana spp.) and Neem (Azadirachta indica) were tested. The results have not been published yet.
    BibTeX:
    @mastersthesis{Assamo2011(?),
      author = {Samito Pereira Assamo},
      title = {Organic Pest Control in Jatropha (in press?)},
      school = {Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Faculdade de Agronomia e Engenharia Florestal},
      year = {2011(?)},
      note = {Portuguese},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/research-program/research-activities/13-pest-control-trial-1}
    }
    
    Beerens, P. & de Jongh, J. Note on Jatropha pressing for FACT pilot projects 2008 , pp. 8  techreport URL 
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Beerens&Jongh2008c,
      author = {Peter Beerens and Jan de Jongh},
      title = {Note on Jatropha pressing for FACT pilot projects},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {8},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/technical-research-annexes/technical-research-activities/oil-presses/NoteonJatrophapressing_May_008_fin.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    DEFRA & DECC Guidelines to Defra / DECC’s Greenhouse Gas Conversion Factors for Company Reporting. 2010   standard URL 
    BibTeX:
    @standard{DECC2010,
      author = {DEFRA and DECC},
      title = {Guidelines to Defra / DECC’s Greenhouse Gas Conversion Factors for Company Reporting.},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/business/reporting/pdf/101006-guidelines-ghg-conversion-factors.pdf}
    }
    
    Envirotrade Produção de Jatropha: A Experiência de Nhambita 2008 , pp. 10Presentation  presentation URL 
    BibTeX:
    @presentation{Envirotrade2008,
      author = {Envirotrade},
      title = {Produção de Jatropha: A Experiência de Nhambita},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {10},
      note = {Portuguese},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/workshops/2008-nov-7-8/2008-11-07_Environtrade_Serra.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    FACT End report FACT pilot project “Jatropha oil for local development in Mozambique” 2007-2010 2011   techreport  
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{FACT2011,
      author = {FACT},
      title = {End report FACT pilot project “Jatropha oil for local development in Mozambique” 2007-2010},
      year = {2011}
    }
    
    FACT 2008 Annual Progress Report Jatropha oil for local development in Mozambique 2008 , pp. 5  techreport URL 
    Abstract: In general, the project is advancing at a slower rate than planned. As a pilot project to approach the use of biofuels (Jatropha) for local development, it has to deal with experiences that are new and on which little existing knowledge is available. ADDP's project team is apparently understaffed as - in spite of hard work - they have not been able to push all activities conform the work plan (especially dissemination and upscaling are lagging). The procurement of the oil press and diesel generator (for the Bilibiza Biofuel Center) from Tanzania has been delayed due to a lack of knowledge on the import/export procedures. The lack of clear communication protocols between the ADPP project team in Bilibiza and ADPP HQ in Maputo was another limitation. Agreements have been made to improve this. Due to the remote location of the project, it is difficult to find good staff; a director for the BBC, able to transform it into a good running business, was only found by October 2008 (anticipated was January).
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{FACT2008,
      author = {FACT},
      title = {2008 Annual Progress Report Jatropha oil for local development in Mozambique},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {5},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/documents-1/project-reports/FACT_PilotProject_Moz_Narrative_ANNUAL_REP_2008.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    FACT 2007 Annual Progress Report Jatropha oil for local development in Mozambique 2007 , pp. 29  techreport URL 
    Abstract: General Findings of status per end Dec. 2007:
    • The context of Jatropha developments supported by Humana has extended to neighbouring countries as well. Christian Fenger of GAIA movement has made proposals and obtained funding for projects in Zambia and Zimbabwe, which include a Jatropha component;
    • ADPP and other project partners are working very hard under difficult circumstances but continue to make good progress.
    • Farmers Clubs, although they have just started cultivating Jatropha, are in general interested and cooperating;
    • ADPP has obtained funding from USDA for supporting FCs in the whole of Mozambique for the next three years, which will be beneficial for the FACT project as well;
    • There are old Jatropha curcas plants to be found in one specific location the project area from which seeds can be obtained (130 kg in Nov. 2007);
    • Another 200 kg of seeds was brought by car from Chimoio to Bilibiza by Flemming Nielsen in November.
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{FACT2007,
      author = {FACT},
      title = {2007 Annual Progress Report Jatropha oil for local development in Mozambique},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {29},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/documents-1/project-reports/FACT-JatroMoz_ANNUAL_REPORT_2007_June_2008_fin.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    FACT Project Summary: Jatropha Oil for Local Development in Mozambique 2006   misc URL 
    BibTeX:
    @misc{FACT2006,
      author = {FACT},
      title = {Project Summary: Jatropha Oil for Local Development in Mozambique},
      year = {2006},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/home/JatroProj_Moz_Summary_fin.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    FACT & ADPP Progress report no 5: Narrative Progress report, 1th of July 2009 2009 , pp. 17  techreport URL 
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{FACT&ADPP2009,
      author = {FACT and ADPP},
      title = {Progress report no 5: Narrative Progress report, 1th of July 2009},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {17},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/documents-1/project-reports/Draft-ADPP-FACTProgressReportNo5_July_2009_lr.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    FACT & ADPP Progress report no 6: Narrative Progress report, December 2009 2009 , pp. 32  techreport URL 
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{FACT&ADPP2009b,
      author = {FACT and ADPP},
      title = {Progress report no 6: Narrative Progress report, December 2009},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {32},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/documents-1/project-reports/2009-12_ADPP-FACTProgressReportNo6-Dec_2009_lr.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    FACT & ADPP Progress report no 3: Narrative Progress report, 15th of July 2008 2008 , pp. 18  techreport URL 
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{FACT&ADPP2008b,
      author = {FACT and ADPP},
      title = {Progress report no 3: Narrative Progress report, 15th of July 2008},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {18},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/documents-1/project-reports/ADPP-FACTProgressReportNo3_July_2008_fin.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    FACT & ADPP Progress report no 4: Narrative Progress report, 1th of December 2008 2008 , pp. 24  techreport URL 
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{FACT&ADPP2008C,
      author = {FACT and ADPP},
      title = {Progress report no 4: Narrative Progress report, 1th of December 2008},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {24},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/documents-1/project-reports/ADPP-FACTProgressReportNo4_Nov_2008_fin.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    FACT & ADPP Progress report no 1: 2007 , pp. 4  techreport URL 
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{FACT&ADPP2007,
      author = {FACT and ADPP},
      title = {Progress report no 1:},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {4},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/documents-1/project-reports/2007-05-08_ProgressRep_1_April_007_JatroMoz_v2.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    FACT & ADPP Progress report no 2: Narrative Progress report,1st of November 2007 2007 , pp. 11  techreport URL 
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{FACT&ADPP2008,
      author = {FACT and ADPP},
      title = {Progress report no 2: Narrative Progress report,1st of November 2007},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {11},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/documents-1/project-reports/FACTProgressRepNov07.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Fenger, C. The GAIA-Movement Narrative Progress report No 1 November 2007 2007 , pp. 7  techreport URL 
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Fenger2007,
      author = {Christian Fenger},
      title = {The GAIA-Movement Narrative Progress report No 1 November 2007},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {7},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/documents-1/project-reports/GAIAFACTProgressRepNov07.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Gagnaux, P. & Santos, L. Entomofauna associada à cultura da Jatrofa (Jatropha curcas L.) em Moçambique 2008 , pp. 17  presentation URL 
    BibTeX:
    @presentation{Santos2008,
      author = {Pomme Gagnaux and Luisa Santos},
      title = {Entomofauna associada à cultura da Jatrofa (Jatropha curcas L.) em Moçambique},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {17},
      note = {Portuguese},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/workshops/2008-nov-7-8/2008-11-07_UEM_Santos_pests.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Gagnaux, P.C. Entomofauna associada à cultura da Jatrofa (Jatropha curcas L.) em Moçambique 2009 School: Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Faculdade de Agronomia e Engenharia Florestal  mastersthesis URL 
    Abstract: Thesis superviser: Profa. Dra. Luísa Santos, UEM.

    Jatropha fields located in 11 districts spread over five provinces namely Maputo, Manica, Sofala, Zambezia and Cabo Delgado were sampled.

    41 species of insects were found in Jatropha fields. The levels of infestation and population density of flee beetles in farmers' fields varied, with only seven sites in Cabo Delgado Province where the species was absent. Elsewhere infestation levels ranged from 10 to 75% infested plants.

    Other important species found was the Caterpillar Green Leaf Mining, Stomphastis thraustica (Meyrick), reported for the first time in Mozambique, which occurred in 30% of the observed fields. The district Meluco had the highest infestation levels, reaching 70% of infected plants.

    The data showed that planting date has effect on the insect density years after the Jatropha has been established. If planting is done when the pest pressure is high during the first months of the year the pest pressure will be high in the same field years later. Selecting the right planting time can therefore be one of the pest control measures.

    BibTeX:
    @mastersthesis{Gagnaux2009,
      author = {Pomme Christiane Gagnaux},
      title = {Entomofauna associada à cultura da Jatrofa (Jatropha curcas L.) em Moçambique},
      school = {Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Faculdade de Agronomia e Engenharia Florestal},
      year = {2009},
      note = {Portuguese},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/research-program/research-activities/05-survey-of-insects-in-jatrophab/2009_01-30_Final_PF_Jatrofa_Pomme.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Groeneveld, G.J. Development of a modification kit for diesel engines suitable for PPO 2008 , pp. 33  techreport URL 
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Groeneveld2008,
      author = {Ger J. Groeneveld},
      title = {Development of a modification kit for diesel engines suitable for PPO},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {33},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/technical-research-annexes/technical-research-activities/development-of-a-modification-kit/Dev_Mod_Kit_dieselsonPPO_fin.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Henderson, M. Training Course Day 3: ADPP Clube de Produtores Agricolas Cabo Delgado. 2009 , pp. 12  presentation URL 
    BibTeX:
    @presentation{Henderson2009,
      author = {Maposa Henderson},
      title = {Training Course Day 3: ADPP Clube de Produtores Agricolas Cabo Delgado.},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {12},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/training-courses/training-course/day-03/Jatrophasemi.ppt?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Henderson, M. Training Course Day 5: Husbandy - Common Field Problems 2009 , pp. 16  presentation URL 
    BibTeX:
    @presentation{Henderson2009a,
      author = {Maposa Henderson},
      title = {Training Course Day 5: Husbandy - Common Field Problems},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {16},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/training-courses/training-course/day-05/Husbandry-Jatrophacourse.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Hornberger, K. Dutch-German Partnership on Energising Development. 2008 , pp. 9  presentation URL 
    BibTeX:
    @presentation{Hornberger2008,
      author = {Klaus Hornberger},
      title = {Dutch-German Partnership on Energising Development.},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {9},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/workshops/2008-nov-7-8/2008-11-07_GTZ_Hornberger.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Jamice, R. Testes de Germinação de sementes de Jatropha 2007 Magazine do Investigador
    Vol. 5, pp. 6 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Germination rates were tested with three Jatropha curcas accessions: i) Oregon, Guatemala; ii) Environtrade in Gorongosa; iii) ADPP in Bilibize. Three treatments were applied: i) Removal of the epidermis; ii) Immersion in water 48 hours; iii) Immersion in water 24 hours; as well as a control. It was found that none of the tested seed pre-treatment increased the germination rate. The three accessions showed similar germination rates. The low germination rate that was initially observed must therefore be attributed to other factors like storage conditions or age of seeds. This is indirectly supported by the fact that since this trial new seed batches have shown high germination rates.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Jamice2007,
      author = {Rogério Jamice},
      title = {Testes de Germinação de sementes de Jatropha},
      journal = {Magazine do Investigador},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {5},
      pages = {6},
      note = {Portuguese},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/research-program/research-activities/04-jatropha-seed-pre-treatmentb/04Jatrophaseedpretreatment.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Jamice, R. Teste de germinação de sementes de Jatropha curcas - Resultados preliminares 2007 Presentation  presentation URL 
    Abstract: The initial planting of Jatropha curcas in Mozambique suffered from low germination rate. This trial was designed to test if seed pre-treatment increase the germination rates.

    the following seeds were available during the period covered in this report:

    1. Jatropha curcas from Oregon, Guatemala obtained by FACT;
    2. Jatropha curcas from Environtrade in Gorongosa collected from old trees;
    3. Jatropha curcas from ADPP in Bilibize collected from old trees;

    The seeds were planted in polyethylene bags in the research nursery outside Sussundenga town.

    The treatments were:

    1. Removal of the epidermis.
    2. Immersion in water 48 hours.
    3. Immersion in water 24 hours.
    4. Control: no pre-treatment

    The results showed that pretreatment or accessions did not affect germination rate in statistically significant ways. The low germination rate that was common around the time the trial was designed must therefore be attributed to other factors.

    BibTeX:
    @presentation{Jamice2007a,
      author = {Rogério Jamice},
      title = {Teste de germinação de sementes de Jatropha curcas - Resultados preliminares},
      year = {2007},
      note = {Portuguese},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/research-program/research-activities/04-jatropha-seed-pre-treatmentb/04Jatrophaseedpretreatment.ppt?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    de Jongh, J. Development of a local market for the oil. 2010 , pp. 26  presentation URL 
    BibTeX:
    @presentation{Jongh2010,
      author = {Jan de Jongh},
      title = {Development of a local market for the oil.},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {26},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/workshops/seminar-maputo-2010/Developmentofalocalmarketfortheoil_fin.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    de Jongh, J. Development modification kit; state of the art. 2010 , pp. 2  techreport URL 
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Jongh2010a,
      author = {Jan de Jongh},
      title = {Development modification kit; state of the art.},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {2},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/technical-research-annexes/technical-research-activities/development-of-a-modification-kit/Developmentmodificationkit_stateoftheart_July2010.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    de Jongh, J. Mission report June-July 2010 2010   misc URL 
    BibTeX:
    @misc{Jongh2010b,
      author = {Jan de Jongh},
      title = {Mission report June-July 2010},
      year = {2010},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/documents-1/trip-reports-1/MissionreportJune2010_fin.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    de Jongh, J. Note on Cotton Oil quality for use as PPO 2009 , pp. 2  techreport URL 
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Jongh2009,
      author = {Jan de Jongh},
      title = {Note on Cotton Oil quality for use as PPO},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {2},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/technical-research-annexes/technical-research-activities/cotton-oil/CottonOil.doc?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    de Jongh, J. Training Course Day 3: Introduction to FACT project: Jatropha oil for Local Development - Mozambique 2009 , pp. 25  presentation URL 
    BibTeX:
    @presentation{Jongh2009a,
      author = {Jan de Jongh},
      title = {Training Course Day 3: Introduction to FACT project: Jatropha oil for Local Development - Mozambique},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {25},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/training-courses/training-course/day-03/FACT-ADPP-JatroMoz_ProjectIntro.ppt?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    de Jongh, J. Mission Report: Mission of Jan de Jongh from 6 Sept-7 Oct 2009, Maputo, Bilibiza, Chimoio 2009   misc URL 
    BibTeX:
    @misc{Jongh2009b,
      author = {Jan de Jongh},
      title = {Mission Report: Mission of Jan de Jongh from 6 Sept-7 Oct 2009, Maputo, Bilibiza, Chimoio},
      year = {2009},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/documents-1/trip-reports-1/2009-10-10_MissionReport_JJ_fin.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    de Jongh, J. Capacity Building & Development of “Training Centers for Rural Technologies”, In Bilibiza and in Chimoio, within the FACT pilot project in Mozambique 2009 , pp. 2  techreport URL 
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Jongh2009c,
      author = {Jan de Jongh},
      title = {Capacity Building & Development of “Training Centers for Rural Technologies”, In Bilibiza and in Chimoio, within the FACT pilot project in Mozambique},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {2},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/training-courses/technical-course/News_CapacityBuildingMozambique%5B1%5D.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    de Jongh, J. Introduction to FACT project: Jatropha oil for Local Development Mozambique 2008 , pp. 25  presentation URL 
    Abstract: Project Summary
    Title: Jatropha oil for Local Development in Moz.
    – Project purpose: To assess whether Jatropha can be grown in Mozambique and used for local market development to generate income for rural smallholder families.
    – Period: Jan 2007- July 2010
    – Location: focal area: Quirimbas park in Cabo Delgado
    – Lead actors: 25 Farmers Clubs (FC’s)

    Main activities
    • 1 Agriculture/production
    • 2 Local Market development
    • 3 Applied research
    • 4 Extension to other provinces
    • 5 Setting up of Training Centre

    BibTeX:
    @presentation{Jongh2008,
      author = {Jan de Jongh},
      title = {Introduction to FACT project: Jatropha oil for Local Development Mozambique},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {25},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/workshops/2008-nov-7-8/2008-11-07_Jongh_Project_Overview.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    de Jongh, J. FACT Pilot Project: Jatropha oil for Local Development Mozambique; Market aspects 2008 , pp. 23  presentation URL 
    BibTeX:
    @presentation{Jongh2008b,
      author = {Jan de Jongh},
      title = {FACT Pilot Project: Jatropha oil for Local Development Mozambique; Market aspects},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {23},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/workshops/2008-nov-7-8/2008-11-07_Jongh_Market.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    de Jongh, J. Plan of Operations: Developing a modification kit for Chinese diesel engines in Mozambique 2008   misc URL 
    BibTeX:
    @misc{Jongh2008c,
      author = {Jan de Jongh},
      title = {Plan of Operations: Developing a modification kit for Chinese diesel engines in Mozambique},
      year = {2008},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/technical-research-annexes/technical-research-activities/development-of-a-modification-kit/PlanOp_Dev_Mod_Kit_july_08.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    de Jongh, J. Diesel survey Cabo Delgado, 2007-2008 2008 , pp. 15  techreport URL 
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Jongh2008d,
      author = {Jan de Jongh},
      title = {Diesel survey Cabo Delgado, 2007-2008},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {15},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/technical-research-annexes/technical-research-activities/survey-of-diesel-engines/DieselSurvey_Moz_Nov2007_2008.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    de Jongh, J. Equipment for oil processing - Solution for BBC (Bilibiza Biofuel Center) in Mozambique; based on workshop of Diligent Tanzania 2008 , pp. 21  presentation URL 
    BibTeX:
    @presentation{Jongh2008e,
      author = {Jan de Jongh},
      title = {Equipment for oil processing - Solution for BBC (Bilibiza Biofuel Center) in Mozambique; based on workshop of Diligent Tanzania},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {21},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/technical-research-annexes/technical-research-activities/bbc-equipment/Equipment-Oil_Process_JJ.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    de Jongh, J. & Adriaans, T. Jatropha oil quality related to use in diesel engines and refining methods. 2007   techreport URL 
    Abstract: • There are a number of PPO characteristics that have influence on the sustainable diesel engine operation, to mention: Phosphor content, Free fatty acids content, viscosity, water and particles (contamination).

    • Phosphor leads to problematic deposits in the engine FFA, represented by the acid number, can cause corrosion and lubrication oil problems, and finally complete engine breakdowns.

    • By maintaining the maximum levels as set in the European Norm: RK2000, the quality of the Jatropha PPO will probably be sufficient to guarantee a trouble free running of the engines as far as PPO quality is concerned (supposed the engines have been adapted according to the needs of the type of engine)

    • There is no uniform composition of Jatropha from various countries nor over different years or from different presses. The reasons why there are great differences, especially in the phosphor contents, are not clear yet and need to be investigated.

    • The temperature during pressing influences the phosphor contents of the pressed oil. For rapeseed pressing temperatures above 60° C cause the amount of phosphor to increase to unacceptable high levels. Awaiting further research this value seems safe as a guideline.

    • Sedimentation in crude Jatropha PPO is high, requiring proper filtering. Research on pressing may lead to better values of crude oil.

    • As overall conclusion: The PPO quality issue should be taken very seriously, and it is necessary to understand how to control the process which starts from harvesting the seeds, and maybe even before that. (stated by Niels Ansø)

    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Jongh&ThijsAdriaans2007,
      author = {Jan de Jongh and Thijs Adriaans},
      title = {Jatropha oil quality related to use in diesel engines and refining methods.},
      year = {2007},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/technical-research-annexes/background/Techn_Note_Jatro_oil_quality_final.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Larrauri, J.A. Jatropha curcas L. development explained by soil nutrient status 2011 School: Plant Production Systems group, Wageningen University,  mastersthesis URL 
    Abstract: The tropical oil crop Jatropha curcas L. may have economic potential in the global biofuel market. However, improvement of the crop needs further research and effort, requiring knowledge on plant phenology as a result of plant development. The main objective of this research is to describe and evaluate the development of Jatropha curcas L., and to relate this to different soil conditions, with the aim of generating a database that could be used for future studies. Development of the crop is investigated through measurements of 1898 Jatropha curcas L. plants from six different fields belonging to Farmer’s Clubs in Cabo Delgado, Mozambique. Plant development is assessed through measurements of the parameters height, number of branches grown during the first year, number of branches grown during the second year, effective branch length and leaf area index of all 1898 plants. The relation between these parameters is investigated by statistical methods aiming to derive patterns that can be represented by mathematical equations. Dry matter and nutrient (N, P and K) content are measured in samples of plant organs (stem, branches grown during the first and second year, petioles and leafs) of selected plants of all the fields. Their relative distribution over the plant organs within total plants has been calculated. To explore whether soil nutrient status could explain differences in plant development and nutrient content, statistical analysis has been used to correlate plant nutrient data with soil nutrient data that were provided by plant and soil analyses. Results obtained in the present research indicate growth and development traits of the specific variety of the Jatropha curcas L. crop cultivated in the region of Cabo Delgado. These results can be used for further investigations in development of J. curcas crop worldwide and in estimations for local bioenergy scenarios. Investigated fields belonged to a project supported by FACT foundation, field work and measurements have been supported by WUR-DGIS funded by Competing Claims-Competing Models project and laboratory analyses have been funded by EU FP6 - ERA-ARD-BIA - Biofuels in Africa program whereas supervision of the MSc student has been performed by Plant Production Systems group, Wageningen University.
    BibTeX:
    @mastersthesis{Larrauri2011,
      author = {Josema Albeniz Larrauri},
      title = {Jatropha curcas L. development explained by soil nutrient status},
      school = {Plant Production Systems group, Wageningen University,},
      year = {2011},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/research-program/research-activities/12-soil-biomass-research-1/2011-01-10_Josema_Albeniz_MSc-thesis.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Mafalacusse, J. & Alvy, T. Notes for Jatropha GIS proposal. 2007 , pp. 7  presentation URL 
    BibTeX:
    @presentation{Mafalacusse&Alvy2007,
      author = {Jacinto Mafalacusse and Teresa Alvy},
      title = {Notes for Jatropha GIS proposal.},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {7},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/workshops/2006-nov-19-2/JatrophaGIS.ppt?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Nielsen, F. Seed Transportation Plan 2011   electronic URL 
    Abstract: The JPO replaces diesel. To assess the CO2 savings resulting from substituting diesel with JPO it is necessary to estimate both the diesel that is being displaced as well as the carbon expenses involved in the production of Jatropha.

    Main findings: The project saves at least 227 t CO2e per year when full production is reached.

    BibTeX:
    @electronic{Nielsen2011,
      author = {Flemming Nielsen},
      title = {Seed Transportation Plan},
      year = {2011},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/research-program/research-activities/16-seed-transportation-plan-1}
    }
    
    Nielsen, F. Harvesting Labour Requirements 2010   electronic URL 
    BibTeX:
    @electronic{Nielsen2010,
      author = {Flemming Nielsen},
      title = {Harvesting Labour Requirements},
      year = {2010},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/research-program/research-activities/15-harvesting-labour-requirements-1}
    }
    
    Nielsen, F. Agronomic & Socio-Economic Research 2010 , pp. 23  presentation URL 
    Abstract: Overview of research undertaken under the "Jatropha for local development" project.
    BibTeX:
    @presentation{Nielsen2010a,
      author = {Flemming Nielsen},
      title = {Agronomic & Socio-Economic Research},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {23},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/workshops/seminar-maputo-2010/2010-11_FN-Research.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Nielsen, F. Jatropha curcas Oil Production for Local Development - Time to up-scale? 2010 , pp. 23  presentation URL 
    Abstract: Jatropha still appears as an attractive option under the right circumstances. However, there are still many unknowns so if up-scaling is done now it is important to:
    1) Understand it is unproven technology
    2) Be aware of unique factors that contribute to success in the project area
    3) Don’t off-load risk on farmers or diesel owners
    BibTeX:
    @presentation{Nielsen2010b,
      author = {Flemming Nielsen},
      title = {Jatropha curcas Oil Production for Local Development - Time to up-scale?},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {23},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/workshops/seminar-maputo-2010/2010-11_JatrophaforLocalDevelopmentFN.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Nielsen, F. Suitability of Jatropha in semi-subsistence agriculture 2010 , pp. 23  presentation URL 
    Abstract: Several recent studies have concluded that under the prevailing economic conditions Jatropha is more suitable as a crop for small-scale farmers than as a plantation crop. The conclusions are mainly based on economic analysis. However, under small-scale scale production in semi-subsistence agriculture suitability of a crop depends on many other factors than simple economic analysis reveal.

    The timing of labour demanding tasks like harvesting and pruning appears to be crucial. Ideally Jatropha should be worked on when other crops require little work. In some cases this makes it necessary to leave ripe seeds on the plants for extended periods. This is turn calls for other breeding objectives than those pursued by the commercial sector.

    Cultural acceptance, gender based division of tasks and ownership, and the effect of permanent woody crops being introduced in shifting cultivation systems are other important issues.

    The experience from the ongoing FACT/ADPP Jatropha project in Northern Mozambique is analysed and compared to experience emerging from Jatropha projects in other poor countries, mainly in Africa.

    BibTeX:
    @presentation{Nielsen2010c,
      author = {Flemming Nielsen},
      title = {Suitability of Jatropha in semi-subsistence agriculture},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {23},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/documents-1/misc/2010-11_ICJC-2010_FN_Presentation.ppt?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Nielsen, F. Transport Plan Model 2010   electronic URL 
    Abstract: Objective:
    1. provide transport cost estimates for the BBC Business Plan; and
    2. to provide an interactive tool that can be used in day-to-day operation of BBC

    Background

    Due to the dispersed settlements and small production of Jatropha, seeds have to be collected from a large area. Transport costs therefore play an important role in the feasibility of the Jatropha system and has implications for the CO2 balance.

    An electronic planner was produced. Available seeds at each collection point can be specified together with the fuel consumption on different types of roads and the load capacity of the truck. The electronic planner will then produce an optimised plan and statistics on milage, fuel consumption and trips required.

    BibTeX:
    @electronic{Nielsen2010d,
      author = {Flemming Nielsen},
      title = {Transport Plan Model},
      year = {2010},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/research-program/research-activities/16-seed-transportation-plan-1}
    }
    
    Nielsen, F. Jatropha Yield Forecasting. 2009 Trip Report: FACT/ADPP Project Mozambique Sept./Oct 2009.  incollection URL 
    Abstract: The Generalised Logistic (Richard's) Curve was applied to the most reliable data series for Jatropha yield. Calibration for local conditions in Cabo Delgado was made to produce a 10 year yield forecast.
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{Nielsen2009,
      author = {Flemming Nielsen},
      title = {Jatropha Yield Forecasting.},
      booktitle = {Trip Report: FACT/ADPP Project Mozambique Sept./Oct 2009.},
      publisher = {FACT/Banana hill},
      year = {2009},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/research-program/research-activities/06-jatropha-yield-forecasting-1}
    }
    
    Nielsen, F. Economic Assessment 2009   techreport URL 
    Abstract: The economics of the Jatropha value chain is uncertain. A rapid economic assessment was undertaken to determine the minimum farm gate price that farmers will accept. Comparing this value with other crops together with the labour requirements will indicate how competitive Jatropha is with other crops. The difference between the minimum farm gate price and the price of Jatropha oil alternatives determines margin that the oil factory has to work within.

    Main findings: Based on the current evidence the minimum farm gate price that farmers will accept is 2 MZN/kg. Farmers can harvest 1-3 kg/h including decortication, or more than 5 kg/h excluding decortication. The value of one persons work range from to 22 to 240 MZN per eight-hour working day which compares favourably with salaries paid for manual labour. There is hardly any paid labour available in the area.

    If Jatropha oil lamps are introduced they will have to compete with the LED lamps. Currently LED lamps are so cheap to purchase and run that Jatropha oil lamps are not competitive.

    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Nielsen2009a,
      author = {Flemming Nielsen},
      title = {Economic Assessment},
      year = {2009},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/research-program/research-activities/07-rapid-economic-assessment-1}
    }
    
    Nielsen, F. Simple Seed Size Selection 2009   electronic URL 
    Abstract: Large seeds should be selected for propagation because large seeds are generally associated with higher yield, higher germination rate and higher relative oil content. Small differences in seed size are difficult to detect by eye so it was tested if the selection can be made by shaking seeds in a container and then skim the top seeds. Ten batches of 300 gr of seeds were shaken in a 1.5 liter disposable drinking bottle for 45 seconds. The container was prepared so seeds could easily be extracted from the top and bottom.

    Main findings: Shaking of Jatropha seeds in locally available platic bottles is not efficient in sorting seeds according to size.

    BibTeX:
    @electronic{Nielsen2009b,
      author = {Flemming Nielsen},
      title = {Simple Seed Size Selection},
      year = {2009},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/research-program/research-activities/14-simple-seed-size-selection-1}
    }
    
    Nielsen, F. Training course day 1: Presentation: Introduction to biofuels 2009 , pp. 27  presentation URL 
    BibTeX:
    @presentation{Nielsen2009c,
      author = {Flemming Nielsen},
      title = {Training course day 1: Presentation: Introduction to biofuels},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {27},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/training-courses/training-course/day-01/2009-09-13_Biofuel_introduction.ppt?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Nielsen, F. Training Course Day 2: Establishing Jatropha 2009 , pp. 25  presentation URL 
    BibTeX:
    @presentation{Nielsen2009d,
      author = {Flemming Nielsen},
      title = {Training Course Day 2: Establishing Jatropha},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {25},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/training-courses/training-course/day-02/2009_09_EstablishingJatropha.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Nielsen, F. Training Course Day 7: Pruning of Jatropha 2009 , pp. 15  presentation URL 
    BibTeX:
    @presentation{Nielsen2009e,
      author = {Flemming Nielsen},
      title = {Training Course Day 7: Pruning of Jatropha},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {15},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/training-courses/training-course/day-07/PruningofJatropha.ppt?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Nielsen, F. Training Course Day 6: Growth and Yield of Jatropha 2009 , pp. 11  presentation URL 
    BibTeX:
    @presentation{Nielsen2009f,
      author = {Flemming Nielsen},
      title = {Training Course Day 6: Growth and Yield of Jatropha},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {11},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/training-courses/training-course/day-06/2009_Misc_Follow_up.pptx?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Nielsen, F. Training Course Day 8: Pest & Diseases 2009 , pp. 14  presentation URL 
    BibTeX:
    @presentation{Nielsen2009g,
      author = {Flemming Nielsen},
      title = {Training Course Day 8: Pest & Diseases},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {14},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/training-courses/training-course/day-09/2009_Pest_and_Diseases.ppt?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Nielsen, F. Mission Report: Mozambique, April 2009 2009   misc URL 
    BibTeX:
    @misc{Nielsen2009h,
      author = {Flemming Nielsen},
      title = {Mission Report: Mozambique, April 2009},
      year = {2009},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/documents-1/trip-reports-1/2009-04_FN_Trip_Rep_Moz_FACT.html?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Nielsen, F. Jatropha curcas oil production for local development in Mozambique 2009
    Vol. 9African Crop Science Society Conference Proceedings, pp. 10 
    inproceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Nielsen2009i,
      author = {Flemming Nielsen},
      title = {Jatropha curcas oil production for local development in Mozambique},
      booktitle = {African Crop Science Society Conference Proceedings},
      publisher = {ACSS},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {9},
      pages = {10},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/documents-1/misc/JatrophacurcasoilproductionforlocaldevelopmentinMozambique.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Nielsen, F. Trip Report: FACT/ADPP Project Mozambique Sept./Oct 2009 2009   misc URL 
    BibTeX:
    @misc{Nielsen2009j,
      author = {Flemming Nielsen},
      title = {Trip Report: FACT/ADPP Project Mozambique Sept./Oct 2009},
      year = {2009},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/documents-1/trip-reports-1/2009-10-05_Trip_Report_FN.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Nielsen, F. Analysis of Yield Data, April to August 2009 2009 , pp. 7  techreport URL 
    Abstract: Preliminary analysis of the first reliable yield data from agronomic trials at Bilibiza.
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Nielsen2009k,
      author = {Flemming Nielsen},
      title = {Analysis of Yield Data, April to August 2009},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {7},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/research-program/research-activities/09-hedgerow-trials-cabo-delgado-1/2009-09-16_analysis.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Nielsen, F. Hedgerow Trials, Cabo Delgado 2008   electronic URL 
    Abstract: Objective: To test how spacing and planting material used in Jatropha curcas hedges affect the yield of Jatropha curcas

    Detailed description of the trial design is available on the website.

    BibTeX:
    @electronic{Nielsen2008,
      author = {Flemming Nielsen},
      title = {Hedgerow Trials, Cabo Delgado},
      year = {2008},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/research-program/research-activities/09-hedgerow-trials-cabo-delgado-1}
    }
    
    Nielsen, F. Hedgerow Trials, Cabo Delgado. 2008   electronic URL 
    Abstract: Objective: To test how spacing and planting material used in Jatropha curcas hedges affect the yield of Jatropha curcas
    BibTeX:
    @electronic{Nielsen2008a,
      author = {Flemming Nielsen},
      title = {Hedgerow Trials, Cabo Delgado.},
      year = {2008},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/research-program/research-activities/09-hedgerow-trials-cabo-delgado-1}
    }
    
    Nielsen, F. Provenance Trials, Cabo Delgado 2008   electronic URL 
    Abstract: Objective: To identify the highest yielding provenance of Jatropha curcas

    Detailed description of the trial design is available on the website.

    BibTeX:
    @electronic{Nielsen2008b,
      author = {Flemming Nielsen},
      title = {Provenance Trials, Cabo Delgado},
      year = {2008},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/research-program/research-activities/10-variety-trials-cabo-delgado-1}
    }
    
    Nielsen, F. Jatropha Research: Achievements - Stock taking of Research Activities under the FACT Jatropha project 2008 , pp. 36  presentation URL 
    BibTeX:
    @presentation{Nielsen2008c,
      author = {Flemming Nielsen},
      title = {Jatropha Research: Achievements - Stock taking of Research Activities under the FACT Jatropha project},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {36},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/workshops/2008-nov-7-8/2008-11-07_FNresearch_Research.ppt?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Nielsen, F. Pruning of Jatropha curcas 2008   booklet URL 
    BibTeX:
    @booklet{Nielsen2008d,
      author = {Flemming Nielsen},
      title = {Pruning of Jatropha curcas},
      year = {2008},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/workshops/2008-nov-7-8/2008-11_Jatrophacurcas_Pruning.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Nielsen, F. Mission Report: Jatropha Research, Field Visit to Mozambique 13th to 30th April 2008 2008   misc URL 
    BibTeX:
    @misc{Nielsen2008e,
      author = {Flemming Nielsen},
      title = {Mission Report: Jatropha Research, Field Visit to Mozambique 13th to 30th April 2008},
      year = {2008},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/documents-1/trip-reports-1/2008-04-30_Trip_Report_MZ.html?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Nielsen, F. Poster: Jatropha in Mozambique 2007   presentation URL 
    Abstract: A small field survey and found that a yellow flee beetle was the culprit. Insects were sampled and macro photos made. It was found that Jatropha does suffer from pests. In Manica Province the Yellow Flee Beetle can be devastating. The more common Golden Flee Beetle found at many sites in Mozambique and other countries rarely kill the Jatropha plants.
    BibTeX:
    @presentation{Nielsen2007,
      author = {Flemming Nielsen},
      title = {Poster: Jatropha in Mozambique},
      year = {2007},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/research-program/research-activities/01-rapid-survey-of-pests-in-jatrophab-1/01PestSurveyPosterbyFNielsen.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Nielsen, F. Poster presentation: Rapid Survey of Pest in Jatropha 2007   presentation URL 
    Abstract: Before the FACT/ADPP project started a few NGOs and individual farmers had planted Jatropha the Manica Province. In particular Caritas was active and many of the farmers they worked with established small plots of Jatropha. It was easy to establish the plants and the farmers were hopeful. That a few international traders visited the area looking for Jatropha seeds just increased the optimism. However, around 2004 it became obvious that things were not going well. Many plants were looking miserable and dying. Within a short time many farmers lost all their Jatropha plants.

    Flemming Nielsen undertook a small field survey and found that a yellow flee beetle was the culprit. Insects were sampled and macro photos made. Entomologists in Mozambique and internationally were contacted but nobody were able to fully identify the flee beetle or offer any advice on its impact or control.

    Outside Manica Province the golden flee beetle was observed. It caused some damage but did not appear to kill the Jatropha plants like the yellow one did.

    Main findings: Jatropha does suffer from pests. In Manica Province the Yellow Flee Beetle can be devastating. The more common Golden Flee Beetle found at many sites in Mozambique and other countries rarely kill the Jatropha plants.

    BibTeX:
    @presentation{Nielsen2007a,
      author = {Flemming Nielsen},
      title = {Poster presentation: Rapid Survey of Pest in Jatropha},
      year = {2007},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/research-program/research-activities/01-rapid-survey-of-pests-in-jatrophab-1/01PestSurveyPosterbyFNielsen.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Nielsen, F. Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) Current Knowledge 2007 , pp. 48  presentation URL 
    BibTeX:
    @presentation{Nielsen2007b,
      author = {Flemming Nielsen},
      title = {Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) Current Knowledge},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {48},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/workshops/2006-nov-19-2/2007-07-04_FN-present_01-comp.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Nielsen, F. Research Program: Progress Report No. 1, 2007
    Reporting period: January 2007 – July 2007
    2007 , pp. 10  techreport URL 
    Abstract: This is the first progress report for the research component of the project “Jatropha oil for local development in Mozambique”.

    A broad team of researchers from the national agricultural research system (IIAM) and Eduardo Mondlane universitetet (UEM) has been assembled. The team met at a workshop in July in Chimoio to elaborate proposals for the different components.

    For the on-station variety trials two hectares of land was prepared in Mandonge research forest outside Sussundenga. Jatropha seeds were obtained from Guatemala, Tanzania and two collections in Mozambique, namely Bilibize and Gorongosa. The seeds were planted at the research nursery outside Sussundenga. However, at the time seedlings were ready it was too far into the dry season to warrant transplanting the seedlings. In the nursery a scientific experiment was undertaken with various seed treatments to increase germination and growth rate. The result was that un-treated seeds performed best which is welcome news since it makes it easier for farmers to manage.

    The on-farm research was hampered by the onset of the dry season. However, research protocols have been prepared for the coming season.

    A reference list with more than 400 entries was prepared in bibtex format and shared among the researchers. Electronic and photocopies of important articles has been obtained.

    A number of activities were undertaken to communicate present knowledge:

    1. One field visit to Cabo Delgado included a training workshop for farmers;
    2. The results from the nursery trial with seed treatment was published nationally in a IIAM newsletter;
    3. A workshop was held in Chimoio where the Jatropha research team exchange knowledge and experience with farmers, extension workers and NGOs.
    4. A website has been established for exchanging knowledge on Jatropha within Mozambique. Some material is confidential, not for public distribution or copyrighted so the site is currently only accessible with a password that has been shared with major stakeholders in Jatropha in Mozambique.
    5. A poster about Jatropha research in Mozambique and about the major pest problems we have was presented at the FACT Seminar: "Jatropha curcas, Agronomy and Genetics" in Wageningen 26-28 March 2007.

    Field observations were done on pests and diseases in nurseries and farmers' fields. A number of pests were identified but the most severe, a flea beetle could not be identified with certainty. Samples were consequently sent to Wageningen University for identification. Results have not bee received yet.

    It was organised that a student from UEM will do her thesis work on pests in Jatropha. Collection of field data has started.

    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Nielsen2007c,
      author = {Flemming Nielsen},
      title = {Research Program: Progress Report No. 1, 2007
    Reporting period: January 2007 – July 2007}, year = {2007}, pages = {10}, url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/documents-1/misc/2007-08_FNResearchBi-annualProgressReportno1.html?attredirects=0&d=1} }
    Nielsen, F. & de Jongh, J. Jatropha curcas Oil Production for Local Development in Mozambique 2009 , pp. 46  presentation URL 
    BibTeX:
    @presentation{Nielsen&Jongh2009,
      author = {Flemming Nielsen and Jan de Jongh},
      title = {Jatropha curcas Oil Production for Local Development in Mozambique},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {46},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/documents-1/misc/2009-11-04_Presentation_JatrophaforLocalDevelopment2.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Nielsen, F. & Zulu, J.M. Mission Report: Visit to Bilibize, Cabo Delgado 25th to 27th May 2007 2007 , pp. 4  misc URL 
    BibTeX:
    @misc{Nielsen&Zulu2007,
      author = {Flemming Nielsen and Jacob M. Zulu},
      title = {Mission Report: Visit to Bilibize, Cabo Delgado 25th to 27th May 2007},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {4},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/documents-1/trip-reports-1/2007-06-12_Bilibizetrip.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Petre, R. Mid Term Evaluation Report October 2008: Jatropha Oil for Local Development in Mozambique 2008 , pp. 12  techreport URL 
    Abstract: There are now 32 farmers clubs. This means that there are around 1,600 farmers directly involved in the project and at least being exposed to conservation agriculture techniques, vegetable production, jatropha use and to rope pumps and lined wells which could all have major benefits for the communities. Staffing ratio has improved, although with the increased number of clubs, each staff member still has to spend an inordinate amount of time travelling. While each farmers’ club does have a Field Extension Worker, essentially a contact farmer, direct contact with the project is through a limited number of staff. There is money in the various budgets to recruit more staff and it is highly recommended that this be done to increase contact with farmers and effectiveness of staff time (the ratio of travel time to field work is currently too high).
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Petre2008,
      author = {Ruaraidh Petre},
      title = {Mid Term Evaluation Report October 2008: Jatropha Oil for Local Development in Mozambique},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {12},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/documents-1/evaluation-end-report/MidtermEvaluation_lr.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Raghavan, K. Setting up of Bio-fuel Training Center in Mozambique 2010 , pp. 15  presentation URL 
    BibTeX:
    @presentation{Raghavan2010,
      author = {Krishna Raghavan},
      title = {Setting up of Bio-fuel Training Center in Mozambique},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {15},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/training-courses/technical-course/2010-10_Bio-fuelTrainingCenterRAGHAVANslides.ppt?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Raghavan, K. Technical Assistance to ADPP-FACT Jatropha Biofuel Project during Sept, Oct 2010 2010 , pp. 51  techreport URL 
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Raghavan2010a,
      author = {Krishna Raghavan},
      title = {Technical Assistance to ADPP-FACT Jatropha Biofuel Project during Sept, Oct 2010},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {51},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/technical-research-annexes/technical-research-activities/bbc-equipment/PresentRaghavan1Nov2010-PART1of2.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Rogerio, J., da Luz Quinhentos, M., Gungulo, A.L. & Monteiro, J. Proposta de Investigação sobre Jatropha em Manica e Cabo Delgado 2007 , pp. 8  presentation URL 
    BibTeX:
    @presentation{Jamiceetal2007,
      author = {Jamice Rogerio and Maria da Luz Quinhentos and Ana Lídia Gungulo and José Monteiro},
      title = {Proposta de Investigação sobre Jatropha em Manica e Cabo Delgado},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {8},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/workshops/2006-nov-19-2/PropostadeInvestigacaosobreJatropha.ppt?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Santos, L. Pragas da Jatrofa Proposta de Investigação Chimoio, Julho 2007 2007 , pp. 9  presentation URL 
    BibTeX:
    @presentation{Santos2007,
      author = {Luisa Santos},
      title = {Pragas da Jatrofa Proposta de Investigação Chimoio, Julho 2007},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {9},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/workshops/2006-nov-19-2/PragasdaJatrofa_Chimoio_4Jul.ppt?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Schurmann, E. Business plan for the BBC in Bilibiza. 2010 , pp. 23  presentation URL 
    BibTeX:
    @presentation{Schurmann2010,
      author = {Erik Schurmann},
      title = {Business plan for the BBC in Bilibiza.},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {23},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/workshops/seminar-maputo-2010/BusinessplanfortheBBCinBilibiza_ES.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Schut, M. Notes on field visit small-scale Jatropha project ADDP-Fact Foundation 2009 , pp. 19  techreport URL 
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Schut2009,
      author = {Marc Schut},
      title = {Notes on field visit small-scale Jatropha project ADDP-Fact Foundation},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {19},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/documents-1/misc/2009_Schut_M_Fieldvisit_Bilibiza.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Searchinger, T., Heimlich, R., Houghton, R.A., Dong, F., Elobeid, A., Fabiosa, J., Tokgoz, S., Hayes, D. & Yu, T.-H. Use of U.S. Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse Gases Through Emissions from Land-Use Change 2008 Science
    Vol. 319(5867), pp. 1238-1240 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Most prior studies have found that substituting biofuels for gasoline will reduce greenhouse gases because biofuels sequester carbon through the growth of the feedstock. These analyses have failed to count the carbon emissions that occur as farmers worldwide respond to higher prices and convert forest and grassland to new cropland to replace the grain (or cropland) diverted to biofuels. By using a worldwide agricultural model to estimate emissions from land-use change, we found that corn-based ethanol, instead of producing a 20% savings, nearly doubles greenhouse emissions over 30 years and increases greenhouse gases for 167 years. Biofuels from switchgrass, if grown on U.S. corn lands, increase emissions by 50%. This result raises concerns about large biofuel mandates and highlights the value of using waste products.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Searchinger29022008,
      author = {Searchinger, Timothy and Heimlich, Ralph and Houghton, R. A. and Dong, Fengxia and Elobeid, Amani and Fabiosa, Jacinto and Tokgoz, Simla and Hayes, Dermot and Yu, Tun-Hsiang},
      title = {Use of U.S. Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse Gases Through Emissions from Land-Use Change},
      journal = {Science},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {319},
      number = {5867},
      pages = {1238-1240},
      url = {http://www.sciencemag.org/content/319/5867/1238.abstract},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1151861}
    }
    
    Speiser, M. Status of Jatropha activities by ELAION Africa Ltd. 2008 , pp. 10Presentation  presentation URL 
    BibTeX:
    @presentation{Speiser2008,
      author = {Markus Speiser},
      title = {Status of Jatropha activities by ELAION Africa Ltd.},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {10},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/workshops/2008-nov-7-8/2008-11-07_Elaion_Speiser.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Sugrue, A. Final Evaluation report of the FACT/ADPP project: Jatropha Oil for Local Development in Mozambique 2011 , pp. 34  techreport URL 
    Abstract: Executive summary: This pilot project has achieved, in essence, all of its intended outcomes that were possible to achieve. It was an immensely ambitious project in terms of its point of delivery in a remote area of northern Mozambique without access to modern service delivery and the fact that is was dependent on working with rural poor farmers who lack education and training to any great extent. The evaluation report indicates that what was achieved over a four year period is remarkable in its extent and the fact that many important deliverables were not only delivered within the target numbers and time frames, but many of the targets were exceeded. Some deliverables were altered by the project managers in agreement with the funders as they needed to match the actual circumstances and respond to the limitations that were experienced in the field; the assessment of these changes is that they were entirely appropriate and correct and that to have proceeded with the original plan would have been irresponsible given the circumstances on the ground. This report cannot adequately reflect the excellent quality of the work undertaken, nor the dedication and commitment of the staff and project partners to their work. The efficiency of the project was reflected in the many and comprehensive reports that were produced and the efforts undertaken on many different aspects over a very short project period of 4 years. It is hoped that the report and the few pictures adequately reflect this efficiency and extremely high standard of project implementation by the project partners.
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Sugrue2011,
      author = {Annie Sugrue},
      title = {Final Evaluation report of the FACT/ADPP project: Jatropha Oil for Local Development in Mozambique},
      year = {2011},
      pages = {34},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/documents-1/evaluation-end-report/FinalevalutionreportfortheFACTjatrophaproject.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Uys, V. Orthoptera Identification Job Sheet 1 2007   techreport URL 
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Uys2007,
      author = {Vivienne Uys},
      title = {Orthoptera Identification Job Sheet 1},
      year = {2007},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/research-program/research-activities/05-survey-of-insects-in-jatrophab/2007-235.docFirstreport.doc?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Uys, V. Orthoptera Identification Job Sheet 2 2007   techreport URL 
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Uys2007a,
      author = {Vivienne Uys},
      title = {Orthoptera Identification Job Sheet 2},
      year = {2007},
      url = {https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&pid=sites&srcid=ZGVmYXVsdGRvbWFpbnxtb3phbWJpcXVlamF0cm9waGF8Z3g6MjJkN2U0ZTM5Y2U0YTJlMw}
    }
    
    Vang, L. Dyrkning af jatropha blandt småbønder i Mozambique - En strategi til reduceret CO2-udledning og lokal udvikling? 2010 Geografisk Orientering(1), pp. 420-425  article URL 
    Abstract: I Cabo Delgado-regionen i det nordlige Mozambique er småbønder inden for de sidste tre år begyndt at dyrke biobrændselsafgrøden jatropha. Bønderne har plantet jatrophatræer som hække langs de eksisterende majsmarker. Da dyrkningen af jatropha anses for en strategi til at skabe lokal udvikling i området, ønsker bønderne imidlertid at ekspandere deres areal med jatropha. Ekspansionen af jatropha-arealet vil med al sandsynlighed ske ved, at bønderne omlægger eksisterende skovarealer til jatropha. Dette kan dog have omfattende negative konsekvenser for miljøet, idet en skovrydning vil medføre øget CO2-udledning til atmosfæren.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Vang2010,
      author = {Laura Vang},
      title = {Dyrkning af jatropha blandt småbønder i Mozambique - En strategi til reduceret CO2-udledning og lokal udvikling?},
      journal = {Geografisk Orientering},
      year = {2010},
      number = {1},
      pages = {420-425},
      note = {Danish},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/research-program/research-activities/11-climate-mitigation-research/2010_GO_Jatropha.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Vang, L. Climate Change Mitigation - Dyrkning af Jatropha blandt småbønder i Mozambique 2009 School: University of Copenhagen, Institute of Geography and Geology  mastersthesis URL 
    Abstract: The study found no cultural or technical obstacles to expansion of Jatropha production. Currently Jatropha appears attractive relative to other crops and the study therefore predict that Jatropha cultivation will expand. Due to the small size of the cultivated area in the project area expansion of Jatropha does not necessitate a reduction of the area for food production.

    The environmental analysis is limited to the CO2 budget. Landuse changes, implact on bio-diversity etc. is omitted from the analysis. The focus is selected because a major argument for bio-fuels is that they reduce CO2 emission.

    The socio-economic analysis is focused on the local level where socio-economic sustainability is of major importance. Impact at smaller scales, e.g. regional and international scale is not included in the analysis. Also ethical aspects are not part of this thesis.

    The analysis of the carbon balance showed that converting forest to Jatropha result in a carbon debt about 30 times larger than convertion from maize to Jatropha. In the first case Jatropha needs to be cultivated for 1900 years to pay back the carbon debt.

    The survey found that most farmers prefer to clear forest for Jatropha cultivation instead of using fallow areas because the expected yield is higher on virgin forest soils.

    The carbon balance depends on where farmers plant Jatropha. If they clear forest to plant Jatropha it will take 1900 years to pay back the carbon debt. If they plant in fallow fields the carbon balance i good. The socio-economic surveyss found no gender bias in Jatropha cultivation and no technical obstacles to expansion.

    BibTeX:
    @mastersthesis{Vang2009,
      author = {Laura Vang},
      title = {Climate Change Mitigation - Dyrkning af Jatropha blandt småbønder i Mozambique},
      school = {University of Copenhagen, Institute of Geography and Geology},
      year = {2009},
      note = {Danish},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/research-program/research-activities/11-climate-mitigation-research/2009-07-22_L.Vang_Thesis.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Zulu, J.M. Report on Market research for Jatropha Oil and Press Cake done in Quissanga District of Cabo Delgado, Mocuba District of Zambezia and Gorongosa District of Sofala 2009 , pp. 8  techreport URL 
    Abstract: Following the implementation of the ADPP/FACT Project in and around the Quirimbas National Park in Cabo Delgado Province in Mozambique, it was found necessary that a research is conducted in the area to asses the market potential for the jatropha oil as well as the press cake. The research has been in three different areas, namely Quissanga, Mocuba and Gorongosa, therefore, this report focuses on all the three different districts in their respective provinces. The report reveals the possibility of the potential market for jatropha products such as oil for lamps, oil for soap and press cake for fertilizing the soil. It evaluates the business possibilities and recommends what
    measures to put in place should there be any attempt of doing business in the respective areas.
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Zulu2009,
      author = {Jacob M. Zulu},
      title = {Report on Market research for Jatropha Oil and Press Cake done in Quissanga District of Cabo Delgado, Mocuba District of Zambezia and Gorongosa District of Sofala},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {8},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/documents-1/market-household-surveys/ReportonMarketresearchforJatrophaoil_Bilibiza_fin.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Biodiesel from Jatropha - For a Sustainable and Decentralised Development EPF Chimoio, Friday Dec. 9, 2005 2005   proceedings  
    BibTeX:
    @proceedings{Fenger2005,,
      title = {Biodiesel from Jatropha - For a Sustainable and Decentralised Development EPF Chimoio, Friday Dec. 9, 2005},
      year = {2005}
    }
    
    Seminar Proceedings: Jatropha for local development Held from Thursday 19 – Friday 20 January 2006 At the conference centre of ADPP/EPF in Chimoio, Manica Province, Mozambique. 2006   proceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @proceedings{Jongh2006,,
      title = {Seminar Proceedings: Jatropha for local development Held from Thursday 19 – Friday 20 January 2006 At the conference centre of ADPP/EPF in Chimoio, Manica Province, Mozambique.},
      publisher = {FACT/Arrakis},
      year = {2006},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/workshops/2006-jan-19-20-jatropha-workshop-chimoio/2006-02-07_Report_2_Jatropha_Seminar_Final.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    
    Major Findings of the 4th Seminar on Jatropha for local development 7-8 November 2008 Chimoio, Mozambique 2008   proceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @proceedings{Jonghetal2008,,
      title = {Major Findings of the 4th Seminar on Jatropha for local development 7-8 November 2008 Chimoio, Mozambique},
      publisher = {FACT},
      year = {2008},
      url = {https://sites.google.com/site/mozambiquejatropha/workshops/2008-nov-7-8/BookletMajorFindingsofSeminar-Chimoio.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1}
    }
    

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